The Streets of Shanghai

CURIOUSLY enough there are only two "Streets" in the whole of this city, and they do not qualify in the Roman sense.

MARKET STREET (L22) runs from Dixwell Road, between East Seward Road and Broadway E. and GAS STREET a continuation of AMOY ROAD (L16), to the west. All other thoroughfares are Roads with "Lanes" or Rues or Routes with their "Passages" and Avenues or Boulevards, mostly reserved for international heroes.

The most ancient record of Shanghai in Chinese history was in A.D. 250 when the Temple "Chin-Ngan" (tranquil repose) with its BUBBLING WELL (J09) is mentioned and St. George's (Farm) Bus Stop is still so called.

In A.D. 1120 the gardens of YU YUEN (J09) are given as the site of a "Pearly Grotto" with the "Hall of Pearly Splendour" and the "Bamboo Fair" to which farmers brought their winter handicrafts for sale to the seafarers. Still an annual event.

In the 16-17th Century foreigners entered greatly into the trade of Shanghai and what may be termed the golden age of Christianity developed under the influence of Siu Kuang-Ki who was born in 1562 and was brought up and has his tomb at ZI-KA-WEI. (BO5).

In the central business section of Shanghai most of the streets running East and West bear the names of Chinese Cities and those parallel to the Bund have names of Provinces. The oldest roads are HANKOW ROAD (J20) (Customs House Road) KIUKIANG ROAD (J20) (Old Ropewalk Road) NANKING ROAD (J20) (Park Lane), and PEKING ROAD (K20) (Consulate Road) and in laying these out in 1845 the width was decided to be 20 to 25 feet. It was not until 1863 that all subsequent roads were specified to be 40 feet wide.

The first streets running west from the Bund were originally named in alphabetical order to make them easy to remember; thus we have CANTON, FOOCHOW, HANKOW, KIUKIANG, NANKING, PEKING and SOOCHOW ROADS in the order named: at a later date JINKEE ROAD, between Nanking and Peking Roads was turned from a private road, leading to Gibb, Livingston& Co. Ltd. (1846) whose Hong name is "Jin Kee", into a public road, and as the alphabetical order had been forgotten, the name was not changed.

THE BUND (K20) is of course the oldest road as it was the towpath but where did THE BUND get its name? "Bund" is a Hindustani word meaning "a made embankment on a water front" and it was so christened by the early settlers from the East India Coy. Another link with the E. India Coy, is AMHERST AVENUE (E03) called, as were the rocks on which she foundered, after the ship "Lord Amherst" that brought, in 1832, the first plenipotentiary of the E. India Coy., with the Rev. Charles Gutzlaff as interpreter, to Shanghai after foreign trade had been interdicted for three centuries.

NANKING ROAD (J20) (once Park Lane) is known to the Chinese as Great Horse Road (Dah Ma Lo) and the streets to the south are still called No.2, 3, 4 and 5 Horse Roads; Canton Road being No.5 Horse Road.

AVENUE EDWARD VII (H20) was so called in memory of the King who founded the Entente Cordiale between England and France but is best known to the Chinese as Yang King Pang. The creek over which it was constructed, accounting for its lack of alignment, previously divided the French from the Allies.

Another link between us is AVENUE FOCH (G15) named after the Generalissimo who commanded the Allies in France. This avenue was previously known as GREAT WESTERN ROAD (H09) over its entire length, which now terminates, with one break, at Hungjao Road and WARREN ROAD (D00). The latter called after Sir Pelham Warren, British Consul General 1901.

The name of the first British Consul is borne by the yery small BALFOUR ROAD (K20) in the heart of the original settlement, off Museum Road, after Captain Balfour, 1843, (afterward Sir George Balfour, M.P.) whose interpreter was the famous Dr. W. H. Medhurst of the London Mission, who amongst other things for which he should be remembered founded the Lester Chinese Hospital and was a member of the first Municipal Council. he was father of Sir Walter Medhurst, H.B.M. Consul, MEDHURST ROAD (J13) is called after him and FEARON ROAD (L22) after Mr. C. A. Fearon of Fearon & Daniel, Chairman of the Council in 1854, and CUNNINGHAM ROAD (N18) after Mr. E. Cunningham of Russell & Co., American Vice Consul, also a member of the first S.M.C. and one of the first Trustees of the Race Course Recreation Ground 1863.

The second British Consul 1848 was Sir Rutherford Alcock, whose first wife was the daughter of Sir Walter Scott and whose grave is in SHANTUNG ROAD (J19) Cemetery. He is remembered by the name of ALCOCK ROAD, (M26) a small cross road behind Ward Road Gaol, hardly worthy of a man who welded together, in 1854, the British, French and American Settlements and framed the Land Regulations and started the Imperial Maritime Customs under his vice-Consul Mr. (later Sir) T. E. Wade, whose name is not commemorated even by a street name.

Mr. Wade was followed by Mr. H. N. Lay, who received from the Chinese Government the appointment of Inspector General in 1859 with autocratic powers over the Customs. His name was given to LAY ROAD (J32) which follows YANGTSZEPOO (K32) creek.

The second Inspector General of Customs was Sir Robert Hart, who has one of the only two statues honouring great men in the Settlement. HART ROAD (H1O) is called after him. He also founded the Chinese Postal Service.

It was in 1848 that Bishop Boone founded the socalled American Settlement to the North of Soochow Creek. The boundaries were fixed in 1862 by the American Consul General Seward as from opposite Defence Creek: along Soochow Creek: along BROADWAY (L21), which was then the foreshore road, to one mile up the Yangtszepoo Creek. These are remembered by BOONE ROAD (M21) and SEWARD ROAD (L21) in this district. The American Settlement was incorporated with the British in 1863.

WARD ROAD (M26) has been mentioned; this is named after that American soldier of fortune who in 1862 commanded the "Ever Victorious Army" taken over in 1863 by Captain (later General) Gordon R.E. about whom C. A. Montalto de Jesus, from whose "Historic Shanghai" much of this information is culled, writes the following dedication:-

"as a tribute to the imperishable memory of CHARLES GEORGE GORDON whose valour, humanity, and self-denial in days of great peril and trials, shed glory on foreign prestige in China, and whose chivalrous deeds are ever conspicuous amongst the proudest records of Shanghai."

Does GORDON ROAD (J12) bring back that "imperishable" memory?

But we must not forget the French notabilities.

BOULEVARD DE MONTIGNY (G17) is in memory of the first French Consul in 1848, who founded the French Concession in 1849.

ROUTE EDAN (C05) is after the French Consul in 1854, who founded the first C.M.F. in 1862.

RUE BRENIER DE MONTMORAND (CiS) is after the French Consul in 1865.

RUE MARESCA (F09) after Monseigneur Maresca.

All these were prominent in the founding and defence of the foreign settlements in their time.

Boulevard de Montigny is the continuation of THIBET ROAD (M17) running along Defence Creek, that part south of Soochow Creek has been renamed YU YA CHING ROAD (L17) after the most prominent of the first Chinese Members of the S.M.C. in 1928.

Another Councillor and a Philanthropist is remembered by RUE CHU PAO SAN (G19) which street of ill-repute, on account of the numerous cabarets, was given the sobriquet of "Blood Alley" by sailors and soldiers. It is a short cross and near the Bund off RUE DU CONSULAT, (G20) itself one of the earliest streets in the French Concession and known in Chinese as French Great Horse Road.

Kings are remembered by AVENUE VICTOR EMMANUEL III (D12) of Italy and AVENUE DU ROI ALBERT (Gll) of Belgium.

Famous men, in addition to General Foch, have their names given to Avenues, such as General Haig, Marshal Joffre, President Lincoln and Marshal Petain.

In the French Concession those of the French Shanghai patriots who died in the 1914-1918 War are remembered by a street name and all such have the Medal Militaire on the cast metal name-plates. These names are:-

Rue Lieut. PETIOT, Francois .. .. .. .. .. G14
Rte. Capt. RABIER, Gustave Marie Paul . .. G17
Rue MATHIEU, Vincent Marie Honore .. .. .. D16
Rte. CULTY, Charles . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. F05
Rte. LORIOZ, Camille .. .. .. .. .. .. .. E05
Rte. WINLING, Jerome Antoine . .. .. .. .. B06
Rte. DE GROUCHY, Jacques Adrien . .. .. .. H1O
Rue BOURGEAT, Louis Alfred ... .. .. .. .. G09
Rte. Du Plan De SIEYES de Veynes,Herve ... D07
Rte. JUPIN, Albert .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. D13
Rte. DUFOUR, Louis .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. B08
Rte. TENANT DE LA TOUR, Raymond . .. .. .. BlO
-JARNO RAOUL, Andre (exception) . .. .. .. -
Rte. PICARD DESTELAN, Guy . .. .. .. .. .. CO5
Rte. PICARD DESTELAN, Herve Charles Louis CO5
Rte. de BOISSEZON, Gustave ... .. .. .. .. G06
Rue MAGNIGNY, Marcel Henri ... .. .. .. .. DO5
Rte. MAGY, Francois Leonard Alfred . .. .. F08
Rte. COHEN, Andre Samuel .. .. .. .. .. .. B07
Rte. FRELUPT, Joseph Sylvain . .. .. .. .. C12
Rte. DELASTRE, Rene . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. B09
Rte. DOLFUS, Robert . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. F14
Rte. LORTON, Francois .. .. .. .. .. .. .. G1l

Other streets which have some special significance are the following:-

ADINA, RUE (D07): -Named after a lady secretary in the Real Estate Company who owned the property.

ALABASTER ROAD (Ml7): -1855 interpreter Br. Consulate, 1864 First Joint Magistrate "Mixed Court." Much associated with General Gordon's success. 1884/7 Acting Consul-General Shanghai, 1892 Consul-General, Canton, Sir Chaloner Alabaster, K.C.M.G.

AVENUE ROAD (K16): -About which the story goes that when this road was under consideration someone said, "Yes we must have a new road" and so it was named!

BARCHET ROAD (Q20): -Dr. Barchet, American Missionary, Interpreter U.S. Court. Joined the C. I. M. 1865.

BAYLE, RUE AMIRAL (C15): -C. in C. French Forces in Far East. 1905 to 1906.

BEAU, RUE PAUL (G15): -French Minister in Peking 1901, Governor General Indo-China 1902.

BOPPE, RUE AUG. (F15): -French Minister in Peking 1918-21, distinguished during retreat of Servian Army 1914-18 War.

BOUNDARY ROAD (N18): -There was no creek as was the case with most other boundaries.

BRENAN ROAD (L06): -Byron Brenan, H.B.M. Consul-General 1899, Uncle of Sir John Brenan, H.B.M.Consul-General 1930.

BRIDOU, ROUTE (BO7): -MM. General Agent 1910-1920.

BRODIE CLARKE, RUE (G17): -The oldest and best beloved of those who have a street name in remembrance. Died 1931, aged 87, after 68 years on China Coast. Original member St. Andrew's Society 1865. Commanded S.V.C. 1900. First D.G.M., S.C., North China, 1922-1928.
BURKILL ROAD (K16): -A. R. Btirkili. founder of British firm 1873, Chairman S.M.C. 1897.

CARTER ROAD (K13):-Carter & Co.. pioneer British firm, renamed Wm. Little & Co. 1883.

French' Warships in Shanghai 1853-56. There is a monument in Pahsieniao Cemetery to those killed in 1855.

CHAPSAL, RUE (G15): -MM. General Agent and Chairman F.M.C. 1881.

CHAOUFOONG ROAD (L24): -Hong Name of Jenner Hogg & Co., also name of Village between Un-Ka-Za, now known as Jessfield Park, and St. John's University.

CONNAUGHT ROAD (L12) :-The Duke, brother of King Edward VII, visited Shanghai in 1890 and unveiled the statue to Sir Harry Parkes, Minister to China 1882-5.

CONTY. RUE (D15):-French Minister 1912-18.

CORNEILLE1 RUE (F13):-17th Century French Author.

COURBET, ROUTE (GlO): -C. in C. Sino-French War. 1885.

CRESCENT AVENUE (J04): -Brunner Mond's (I.C.I.) Trade Mark. They presented the Boy Scouts Association Shield for Scouts.

DARROCH ROAD (R21): -Rev. John Darroch, Religious Tract Society. Born 1887 and is still alive.

DELAUNAY, RUE (C06): -Bank of Indo-China, killed in France, 1914/18 War.

DENT ROAD (L25) :-Sir Alfred Dent of Lancelot Dent & Co., Pioneer Merchant 1848, or, Henry Dent, one of those responsible for Recreation Ground, Chairman S.M.C. 1863/5.

DIXWELL ROAD (R21):-G. B. Dixwell, Chairman S.M.C. 1870-1.

DOUMER, ROUTE (FlO):Gov. Gen. Indo-China, 1896-1905. President of France 1931. Assassinated in Paris, May 1932.

DUBAIL, AVENUE (C14): -French Minister during Wheelbarrow and Ningpo Guild Riots, 1898.

DUPLEIX, ROUTE (G08): - Marquis, French Admiral in 1746 Franco-British war in India.

EDINBURGH ROAD (GOS):-Commemorating visit of Duke of Edinburgh, Commanding H.M.S. Galatea 1869.

ELGIN ROAD (N18):-Lord Elgin, British Minister 1857.

EWO ROAD (L26): -Jardine, Matheson's Hong Name derived from the wealthy Houqwa of Canton 1830, who was associated with this Pioneer British firm from the earliest days.

EZRA ROAD (J19):-Edward Ezra, British merchant and landowner.

FERGUSON, ROUTE (G07): -Dr. John Ferguson, American Missionary, Adviser to Chinese Government and founder of "Sin Wan Pao," Chinese language Newspaper, born 1887 and is still alive.

FERRY ROAD (J11):-To the Old ferry over Soochow Creek, known to the Chinese as "Little Ferry Road."

FOCH, AVENUE (G15):-During the 1914/18 war the names of three main thoroughfares were changed: thus Avenue Paul Brunat (named after a doctor once very famous in Shanghai) was renamed Avenue Joffre; the Great Western Road (inside Settlement or Concession portion) became Avenue Foch; and the old Siccawei Road became Avenue Haig.

FORTUNE TERRACE (R21): -Robert Fortune, Botapical Collector to the Horticultural Society of London, first visited Shanghai 1843. He introduced tea from China to India and wrote many books on his travels in the interior of China and Japan and his impressions of the early life of the Foreign Settlements.

FRASER ROAD (D00): -Sir Everard Fraser, H.B.M. Consul-General 1911.

GARDEN BRIDGE (L21) -Named after the Public Gardens but still known. to the Chinese as "Old White Ferry Bridge"; first built in 1856 and free of toll since 1873. Present Bridge built in 1907.

GARNIER, ROUTE FRANCIS (E08):-Naval Officer, Tongking Exp. 1873-4.

GHISI, ROUTE (B09):-Member F.M.C. 1890.

GLEN ROAD (M37): -Capt. Glen, owner of house on road; name changed 1930.

GROS, RUE BARON (G15):-Ambassadeur Extraordinaire 1858-60.

HAIG, AVENUE (H09):-British C. in C. 1914-18.

HANBURY ROAD (M21): -Sir Thomas Hanbury 1863, founder of Probst, Hanbury who presented trees now in Bund Garden and Bubbling Well Cemetery from his Riviera property. (see Kungping Road).

HANNEN ROAD (N21): -Sir Nicolas Hannen, H.B.M. Consul General 1891.

HARDOON ROAD (J10): -S. A. Hardoon, British merchant and landowner.

HASKELL ROAD (N20): -Fred Haskell, American merchant.

JANSEN ROAD (K28):-American who founded the Astor House Hotel in 1860.

JORDAN PARK (N36): -Sir John N. Jordan, Minister to China 1906, father of Dr. Jordan, Public Health Dept. S.M.C. Name previously given to Rockhill Avenue.

JESSFIELD ROAD (L04): -Leading to estate of John Macgregor of Caldbeck Macgregor and called after his first wife. Property sold for St. John's University in 1878. Chairman S.M.C. 1889-92,1893/4. (See Macgregor Road).

JOFFRE, AVENUE (D05): -French Marshal, 1918.

KAHN, ROUTE GASTON (B11): -French Consul General 1913-16.

KAUFMANN, ROUTE (D07):-Yunnan Posts; killed in France 1914-18.

KESWICK ROAD (D0l): -William Keswick of Jardine Matheson and Co. Ltd. Chairman S.M.C. 1865/6.

KINNEAR ROAD (K06): -Director, Gibb, Livingstone & Co., Pioneer British Firm 1846.

KRAETZER, RUE (G16): -French Consul-General 1885.

KUNGPING ROAD (N25): -Hong Name of Probst Hanbury & Co., the founder of which firm endowed many schools for children of foreigners and Chinese. (See Hanbury Road).

LAFAYETTE, RUE (E08): -French General in American Revolution. b. 1737 d. 1834.

LAGUERRE, ROUTE DE LA (F16): -French C. in C. 1855.

LEGENDRE, ROUTE PAUL (F05): -Secretary F.M.C.1927.

LINCOLN AVENUE (H00): -President U.S.A. b. 1809 d. 1865.

LOVE LANE (J14):-Once a secluded lane following a creek to West and North of British Country Club. Called by Chinese "Diagonal Bridge Road."

LUCERNE ROAD (H05): -Led to the Swiss Club, off Edinburgh Road.

MACGREGOR ROAD (L27):-Chairman S.M.C. 1889-92, 1803-4. (See Jessfield Road).

MeLEOD ROAD (D00): -Dr. McLeod, one of the founders of the "M" firm of Doctors. He introduced X Rays into Shanghai and the first motor car.

McBAIN ROAD (J12):-On the estate of McBain family, afterwards site of Majestic Hotel, 1925.

MAJESTIC ROAD (J12):-(As above.)

MARCO POLO, ROUTE (G16):-Venetian Traveller and Counsellor to Chinese Gov't. 13th Century.

MARKHAM ROAD (M13):-British Vice-Consul, 1863.

MASSENET, RUE (E13):-Great French Composer, 19th Century.

MAYEN, ROUTE (G09):-Silk Inspector; Killed in France, 1914-18.

MERCIER,RUE CARDINAL (G12):-Belgian Church Dignitary 1914-1918. It was previously the drive leading to the German Club.

MILLER ROAD (M21):-According to a List of Residents in 1850, reproduced by Adcraft Studios in their Diamond Jubilee of Shanghai book, there was a J. Miller, an Auctioneer, after whom this early road may have been named.

MOHAWK ROAD (J15):-Led to Mohawk Lodge. home of Henry Morriss, one of the old proprietors of the North-China Daily News. Mr. Morriss was a great racing man and gave all his ponies Indian names, such as Shawendassie (south wind), Minnehaha (laughing water), etc.

MONTAUBAN, RUE (G20): -General C. in C. 1860, Created Count of Pa Li Kao on account of success near Peking in 1860. He succeeded in securjng the return of the first Christian Church raised in the 17th Century but subsequently turned into the War God's Temple, now known as Lao Dang (old Church), in Chinese City.

MONUMENT ROAD (D00):-Leading to pyramidical cenotaph in memory of members of Paper Hunt Club who died in 1914-18 War.

MOLIERE, RUE (E13):-Great French Author 17th Century.

MORRISON ROAD (M21):-Dr. Robert Morrison, the first Protestant Missionary, 1807.

MUSEUM ROAD (K20):-Containing the Royal Asiatic Society's branch, 1857, for which the British Government gave the land.

MUIRHEAD ROAD (L26):-Dr. Muirhead one of the first of London Mission, 1847; lived in Shanghai 53 years.

MYBURGH ROAD (J15):-Chairman S.M.C., 1883-4.

PAUL HENRY, RUE (G11):-French Naval Officer killed during Seige of Pei-tang, Peking 1900, Boxers.

PEARCE ROAD (D00):-Sir Ed. Pearce, Br. Merchant, Chairman S.M.C. 1913-1920.

PERE DUGOUT, ROUTE (C16):-Jesuit Father killed at Nanking 1925.

PERE FROC, RUE DU (D16):-Director of Sikawei Observatory, b. 1859; arrived in China 1883; died 1932.

PERE HUC, RUE DU (F07):-Missionary and great Explorer of China and Tibet, 1829-54.

PERE ROBERT, ROUTE (B12):-Procurator Mission Etrangers, 1889, member F.M.C. 1889-1904, presently "Supeneur General" of Missions Etrangeres in Paris.

PETAIN, AVENUE (B05):-French Marshal 1918. President 1940.

PERSHING, RUE GENERAL (D06):-American General, 1916-18.

PICHON, ROUTE (El0):-French Minister, Boxer Siege of Legations 1897-1901.

POINT ROAD (P26-38):-Named after the point of land where the river curves round towards Woosung; this was the end of the road to which residents drove in the evenings to enjoy the cool breeze from the river; later the Point Hotel was built to accommodate these visitors.

POTTIER, ROUTE (F09):-C. in C. French Naval Forces 1900.

PRENTICE ROUTE JOHN (G12):-Member of S.M.C. and for many years a member of the Cerle Sportif (the original Club) and first British representative on the Balloting Committee who introduced all non-French members: it was his great popularity amongst the French community which caused the F.M.C. to name a street after him ,(an unique distinction). Sh. Dock & Eng. Co., 1870-1925.

PROSPER PARIS, ROUTE (D05):-Catholic Bishop, b.1846; arrived in China 1883; died 1931.

PURDON ROAD (M18):-Pioneer American Merchant, Chairman, S.M.C., 1874-6 and 1892-3.

RACE COURSE ROAD (H16):-South Boundary of present Race Course. First Race Course between Nanking Road and Honan Road on which Holy Trinity Cathedral now stands. Second between Hupeh Road, Pakhoi Road and Yu Ya Ching Road, 1854-1863.

RANGE ROAD (N19):-Site of Rifle Range till 1899.

RATARD, RUE (G09):-French Consul-General 1908-1910.

REMI, ROUTE (El0):-First French Merchant, 1848.

RIVIERE, ROUTE HENRI (E09):-Major killed at Tongking 1883.

ROBISON ROAD (M05):-One of the original founders of Shanghai Club, 1864.

RUBICON ROAD (D00):-After the name given to the Creek by Paper Hunters, after the stream between Italy and Gaul crossed by Caesar.

SAY ZOONG, ROUTE DE (G09):-Mafoo who made money and owned large livery stable. Open until 1937.

SCOTT ROAD (S21):-J. L. Scott of Scott. Harding, Chairman of S.M.C. in 1894-7, name transferred from what is now Yalu Road.

SEYMOUR ROAD (J11):-British Admiral, Sir Ed. Seymour, C. in C. at relief of Peking Legations, 1900.

SINZA ROAD (K16): -Chinese for New Toll Gate, 11.4 miles up the Soochow Creek from "Louza" the Old Toll Gate.

SOEURS, ROUTE DES (G13):-The Sisters of the Poor, who still have a garden there.

STANISLAS, ROUTE CHEVALIER (C13): -Jesuit Father, one of the pioneers of the Zi-Kai-Wei Observatory. b.1852; arrived in China 1883; died 1930.

TAIKOO, RUE DE (G20): -Butterfield & Swires' Hong Name.

TEMPLE LANE (J09): -On property of Bubbling Well Temple.

THORBURN ROAD (M29): -Mr. Thorburn, original Trustee of "Riding Course" 1854. Member S.M.C. 1855.

THORNE ROAD (M22): -Cornelius Thorne, British Tea Merchant. First D.G.M., E.C., Northern China, 1877-1885.

TILLOT, RUE MARCEL (F15):-Member F.M.C. left China about 1909.

VALLON, ROUTE (F12):-Pioneer Aviator who after many successful flights over China, crashed and was killed on Race Course, May 1911. Monument at Koukaza Park.

VOYRON, ROUTE (F14):-C. in C. French Expeditionary Forces, 1900.

WAGNER, RUE. (G17):-Sec. Postal Service, son of French Consul General 1891, killed 1st July 1900 in Peking, the first civil victim of Boxers' siege of Legations.

WANTZ, RUE (Fl5):-C.M.F. Architect 1913.

WARREN ROAD (D00):-Sir Peiham L. Warren, H.B.M. Consul General, 1901.

WAYSIDE ROAD (L26): -At the end of Broadway East was a small green, now absorbed by the Road junction, which in 1923 was still known as "Wayside Piece." This gave the name to the whole district.

WETMORE ROAD (J30):-W. S. Wetmore & Co., American Merchants, 1848. Member S.M.C. 1855.

WINCHESTER ROAD (M17):-Mr. C. A. Winchester H.B.M. Consul-General, 1865/71.

YATES ROAD (J13):-Dr. Yates of Am. S. Baptist Mission and author of grammar in Shanghai dialect, 1847.

YOUNG ALLEN COURT (L21):-Dr. Y. J. Allen, Meth. Ep. Church b.1860 d.1907.